August 2019

Scientists HandMake Devices Smaller than 10 Nanometers

first_imgA research team from the University of Pennsylvania has used an electron beam to hand-carve ultra-small metal structures and devices, all with dimensions below 10 nanometers, from very thin metal sheets. Their technique could impact the development of many nanotechnologies, including nanoelectronics. Among the structures created by the two scientists, professor Marija Drndić and graduate student Michael Fischbein, the paper’s lead author, are nanodisks, nanorings, nanowires, nanoholes, and multi-terminal nano-transistors.“Many different approaches have been undertaken to fabricate the small structures needed to probe the phenomena that take place at the nanoscale, but the most widely used and versatile techniques are limited to tens of nanometers,” Drndić said to PhysOrg.com. “Reliably and consistently fabricating devices at the sub-10-nanometer scale from the top down is generally still challenging, but our technique offers a route to this regime.”Drndić and Fischbein used the electron beam produced inside a transmission electron microscope to essentially sculpt various metal nanostructures by removing atoms from metal films, including gold, silver, and aluminum. The films varied in thickness from 10 to 50 nanometers and were pre-cut into 80-nanometer-wide strips. This top-down approach yielded structures and devices with near atomic detail. “It’s like using a magnifying glass and sun rays to sculpt an ice cube,” says Fischbein. “However, using an electron beam instead of sun rays allows for precision on the atomic scale.” Among its advantages over other techniques, Drndić and Fischbein say, is the fact that theirs uses the imaging beam of a transmission electron microscope, which means the structures can be imaged with atomic resolution and inspected in real time as they are created. These characteristics result in structures with smooth surfaces (atomically speaking) and high reproducibility – creating nearly identical copies of the same structure.Additionally, the technique (referred to as TEBAL, for transmission electron beam ablation lithography) allows the contacts between a nanostructure and its leads to be resistance-free, and thus more efficient. Structures made from bottom-up techniques, i.e., assembled from smaller components, typically first need to be placed on a chip and then connected to larger circuitry. TEBAL avoids these steps.All of the structures created using TEBAL were done so by hand, with a human user guiding the electron beam and watching each structure take shape. “Computer control should offer an even higher degree of precision than we’ve demonstrated and produce highly intricate patterns over a wide area,” said Fischbein.TEBAL has many potential applications in nanoscience because it has the ability to produce a wide variety of nanostructures. Running a current through TEBAL-created nanowires could allow them to be used as nanomagnets. Or, the wires could be used to test the effects of wire shape and size on their conductivity, using both regular and superconducting wires. The tiny transistors Drndić and Fischbein created have many uses in molecular electronics. Nanogap-nanohole devices can be used in the manufacture of single-molecule detectors and provide new opportunities for DNA nanopore sequencing.This research is described in detail in the April 17, 2007, online edition of Nano Letters.Citation: Michael D. Fischbein and Marija Drndić, “Sub-10 nm Device Fabrication in a Transmission Electron Microscope.” Nano Lett. ASAP Article, DOI: 10.1021/nl0703626Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further Two intersecting nanowires (left panel) were made into a four-terminal nanogap transistor (right panel) using the TEBAL method. Citation: Scientists Hand-Make Devices Smaller than 10 Nanometers (2007, April 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-04-scientists-hand-make-devices-smaller-nanometers.html Electron beam ‘carves’ the world’s smallest devices This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more


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New method for sequencing genome in a single cell

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further New DNA analysis thousand times more sensitive More information: Genome-Wide Detection of Single-Nucleotide and Copy-Number Variations of a Single Human Cell, Science, 21 December 2012: Vol. 338 no. 6114 pp. 1622-1626. DOI: 10.1126/science.1229164ABSTRACTKindred cells can have different genomes because of dynamic changes in DNA. Single-cell sequencing is needed to characterize these genomic differences but has been hindered by whole-genome amplification bias, resulting in low genome coverage. Here, we report on a new amplification method—multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC)—that offers high uniformity across the genome. Sequencing MALBAC-amplified DNA achieves 93% genome coverage ≥1x for a single human cell at 25x mean sequencing depth. We detected digitized copy-number variations (CNVs) of a single cancer cell. By sequencing three kindred cells, we were able to identify individual single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), with no false positives detected. We directly measured the genome-wide mutation rate of a cancer cell line and found that purine-pyrimidine exchanges occurred unusually frequently among the newly acquired SNVs. The genome of single cells has been sequenced before using a technique known as a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to produce enough copies of the DNA for sequencing. This procedure enables researchers to sequence the genome with about 40-70 percent accuracy, but greater precision is difficult because of amplification bias, in which some parts of the genome tend to be copied more readily than others. Not only does this reduce the extent of the genome that can be sequenced, but it also means segments of DNA that are copied are difficult to detect and may be missed.In a paper published in Science a US research team describe a new way of getting around the amplification bias problem. The team, led by Professor X. Sunney Xie of Harvard University in Massachusetts, has developed a new technique which they have named “Multiple Annealing and Looping-Based Amplification Cycles” (MALBAC), in which the genome from a cell is first isolated and then “primers” consisting of short segments of DNA are added. When the DNA with the added primers is copied, up to 93 percent of the genome can be sequenced because the common segments incorporated into the copies loop back on themselves.The primers are pieces of DNA with a common section of 27 nucleotides and a variable section of eight nucleotides. The shorter section binds to the cell’s DNA and the longer, common section reduces amplification bias by preventing the DNA from being copied too often.The researchers used the new technique to sequence the DNA in three closely related cells, and also the DNA of 99 sperm from a single Asian male (as described in a second paper in the same journal). They were able to identify variations in individual nucleotides and observed no false positives.The improvement in single cell genome sequencing is a big advance, but variations in single nucleotides could still be missed. The copying method can also introduce occasional copying errors.The ability to sequence the genome in a single cell could help in cancer and other research since it would allow comparisons between individual cells. It could also prove useful in applications where only a small sample of DNA is available, such as in forensic science. Journal information: Science © 2012 Phys.org Citation: New method for sequencing genome in a single cell (2012, December 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-12-method-sequencing-genome-cell.html (Phys.org)—The traditional genome sequencing process requires thousands of cells (or more) to provide sufficient DNA, and this means that variations that are only present in a small number of cells―such as early cancer cells―are missed. Now a new technique has been developed for effectively sequencing the DNA in an individual cell.last_img read more


Wearable display meets blindfold test for sensing danger

first_img More information: — www.vmateevitsi.com/— www.evl.uic.edu/core.php?mod=4&type=3&indi=474— Research paper (PDF): www.evl.uic.edu/files/pdf/Spid … SenseCameraReady.pdfvia Newscientist Glove designers plan messaging path for deaf-blind (Phys.org)—Researchers at the University of Illinois in Chicago have developed a special set of body modules that provide wearers with extra-sensory perception as to who or what is nearby. The design could help the blind navigate safely or even support cyclists or drivers as additional safety support in traffic. Called SpiderSense, this is a wearable display that can pick up ultrasonic reflections from objects. SpiderSense can also allow the wearer, even if eyes are closed, to navigate. Modules are distributed across the suit to give the wearer as near to 360-degree ultrasound coverage as possible. The system modules can scan the environment; they are controlled through a Controller Box. The box carries the power source, the electronics and the system logic. The modules and the Controller Box are connected by means of ten pin ribbon cables. The researchers said that, in the future, this could be replaced by a wireless Bluetooth connection.Does their concept work? In one experiment, students on campus were asked to stand outside, blindfolded, and feel for approaching attackers. Each wearer had ninja cardboard throwing stars. If the test subject sensed someone approaching, then that participant was asked to use the stars. “Ninety five per cent of the time they were able to sense someone approaching and throw the star at them,” Mateevitsi said. Citation: Wearable display meets blindfold test for sensing danger (2013, February 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-wearable-blindfold-danger.html While experiments showed success in outdoor environments, results of indoor testing were not as successful, where sensor modules overwhelmed the user with tactile feedback.The team intends to further develop the gear by adding more sensors. They suggest several practical applications. The gear could help the vision-impaired get around more easily, and they plan to start trials with the visually impaired. Another application might be as compensating support for the hearing-impaired. Still another could be as a supplementary aid in spatial awareness. They said that bicyclists, for example, could have one sensor on each forearm facing outwards and two sensors on their back, being aware of passing or incoming traffic.Their paper will be presented at the Augmented Human International Conference in Stuttgart, Germany, on March 7. SpiderSense on a blindfolded user. Credit: Victor Mateevitsicenter_img Positioning of Sensor Modules and Controller Box. Credit: Victor Mateevitsi © 2013 Phys.org The researchers behind SpiderSense define it as a wearable device that projects the wearer’s near environment on the skin. The suit gives the user a special directional awareness of surrounding objects. They have explored a scenario where multiple sites over the body, rather than just hands, are fitted with transducers. These transducers relay information about the wearer’s environment into tactile sensations. As the researchers noted, sensory receptors that cover the skin provide opportunities for conveying alerts and messages. They set about to design a wearable device that could also relay alerts and messages. When the ultrasound detects someone moving closer to the microphone, the arms exert increased pressure on the body. The SpiderSense design and experiment results are presented in their paper, “Sensing the Environment Through SpiderSense,” by Victor Mateevitsi, Brad Haggadone, Jason Leigh, Brian Kunzer, and Robert V. Kenyon. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more


IBM and Mars join together to make food safer with genetics

first_img Explore further Why counting calories is not all about the numbers © 2015 Phys.org Food companies have extensive testing programs in place, but they only test for what they expect to find. This new approach will allow for testing for unknown threats, such as weapoized bacteria, or toxins inadvertently introduced by accident. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an inexpensive way to test food which should be lucrative for IBM, helpful for Mars, and safer for consumers. Credit: IBM More information: Press release: www.mars.com/global/press-cent … px?SiteId=94&Id=6369center_img (Phys.org)—Computer giant IBM, and food giant Mars, have announced a joint project they are calling “Consortium for Sequencing the Food Supply Chain.” The idea is to use modern microbiology, computer crunching and analysis techniques to identify all of the things that are in our food, both good and bad, to ultimately make the food we buy and eat safer. As they note in their announcement, our food is not as safe as we would like, every year billions of dollars goes into treating the thousands of people who get sick due to food borne illnesses, some of whom die. The problem, they also note, is only going to get worse as the population rises, meaning more mouths to feed. IBM and Mars believe the way to make food safer, is to identify all of the things that are in the food we eat, so that tools can be developed to recognize when something is in them that is not supposed to be there.To achieve this goal, the two companies have embarked together on a two year journey which will start with studying genetic markers of viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. and the ways they get into and interact with foods and eventually progress to sequencing the genomes of all the foods we eat that have some degree of organic matter from plant or animal ingredients. Mars will supply a continuous stream of samples from its food factories to IBM which will test the samples in collaboration with genomics experts. Data will be sent to IBM’s massive 500 node Accelerated Discovery THINKLab for sequencing and for populating databases which will be developed to sort out the intricacies of material under examination and to provide a standard for comparing samples against in the future. Eventually, the two would like to expand the scope of the work to include every possible element in the food chain, from bacteria in soil, to bacteria found on forks in a silverware drawer. The idea is to build a baseline for everything we eat, and then to create a means for testing food against that baseline to see if it conforms, if not, it probably has something in it that should not be there, and that might be harmful. Citation: IBM and Mars join together to make food safer with genetics (2015, January 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-01-ibm-mars-food-safer-genetics.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more


New insights on the nature of the star V501 Aurigae revealed

first_img More information: On the nature of the candidate T-Tauri star V501 Aurigae, arXiv:1702.04512 [astro-ph.SR] arxiv.org/abs/1702.04512AbstractWe report new multi-colour photometry and high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the long-period variable V501 Aur, previously considered to be a weak-lined T-Tauri star belonging to the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The spectroscopic observations reveal that V501 Aur is a single-lined spectroscopic binary system with a 68.8-day orbital period, a slightly eccentric orbit (e ~ 0.03), and a systemic velocity discrepant from the mean of Taurus-Auriga. The photometry shows quasi-periodic variations on a different, ~55-day timescale that we attribute to rotational modulation by spots. No eclipses are seen. The visible object is a rapidly rotating (vsini ~ 25 km/s) early K star, which along with the rotation period implies it must be large (R > 26.3 Rsun), as suggested also by spectroscopic estimates indicating a low surface gravity. The parallax from the Gaia mission and other independent estimates imply a distance much greater than the Taurus-Auriga region, consistent with the giant interpretation. Taken together, this evidence together with a re-evaluation of the LiI~λ6707 and Hα lines shows that V501 Aur is not a T-Tauri star, but is instead a field binary with a giant primary far behind the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The large mass function from the spectroscopic orbit and a comparison with stellar evolution models suggest the secondary may be an early-type main-sequence star. Water detected in the atmosphere of hot Jupiter exoplanet 51 Pegasi b V501 Aur was detected as an X-ray source in 1996 by the ROSAT space observatory. After the discovery, the source was classified as a possible new weak-lined T-Tauri star (WTTS) belonging to the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. However, subsequent studies of this star provided evidence of its unseen stellar companion, suggesting that V501 Aur could be a single-lined spectroscopic binary.In the latest study, a team of astronomers led by Martin Vaňko of the Astronomical Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences in Tatranská Lomnica, Slovakia, has found that V501 Aur is a single-lined spectroscopic binary star.”The spectroscopic observations reveal that V501 Aur is a single-lined spectroscopic binary system with a 68.8-day orbital period, a slightly eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.03), and a systemic velocity discrepant from the mean of Taurus-Auriga,” the paper reads.The findings are based on a series of observational campaigns carried out between 1996 and 2016, utilizing telescopes and spectrographs worldwide. These observations allowed the team to reveal more details about the nature of this star.”Information gathered since, as well as observations reported here, paint a rather different picture of the nature of the system that we now describe,” the authors wrote.According to the paper, V501 Aur is a rapidly rotating early K star with a radius of more than 26.3 solar radii. The spectroscopic observations also indicate that V501 Aur has a fairly massive unseen companion, making it a binary star. Moreover, the new evidence shows that V501 Aur is not a T-Tauri star, but is instead a field binary far behind the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. “The scenario that emerges for V501 Aur, aided by a comparison with stellar evolution models that succeed in matching all observational constraints, is one in which it is a background, non-eclipsing spectroscopic binary projected onto the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region, with a luminous, spotted, and fairly rapidly rotating giant star as the primary, and a likely much more rapidly rotating early-type star as the secondary,” the researchers wrote in the paper.Furthermore, the scientists estimated the mass of this binary system. Their calculations show that the primary star is about four times more massive than the sun, while its companion has a mass between 1.63 to 2.3 solar masses.The findings also indicate that the system is roughly 180 million years old and is located approximately 2,600 light years away.The team concluded that in order to uncover more details about V501 Aur, a detailed chemical analysis of this system should be performed. It could help us reveal its other parameters and improve our knowledge about its evolutionary state. Citation: New insights on the nature of the star V501 Aurigae revealed (2017, February 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-insights-nature-star-v501-aurigae.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Astronomers have presented the results of new photometric and spectroscopic observations of the star V501 Aurigae (V501 Aur for short), providing new insights into the nature of this object. The findings show that V501 Aur, previously considered to be T-Tauri star, is most probably a field binary. The study was published Feb. 15 in a paper available on arXiv.org. © 2017 Phys.org Phase diagram for all available data of V501 Aur folded with the average period of P = 55.45 days. Credit: Vaňko et al., 2017.last_img read more


Atacama Desert people found to have evolved greater tolerance of arsenic

first_imgA large sample of native arsenic. Credit: Aram Dulyan/Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Native people living in a part of the Atacama Desert in Chile (in a place known as the Quebrada Camarones, where it is drier than any other non-polar spot on the planet) are descended from settlers that moved into the area approximately 7,000 years ago. Those early settlers faced serious health problems due to very high concentrations of arsenic in the only water available. The researchers with this new effort suggest that many such settlers likely perished before they could produce offspring, leaving those that were more physically suited to dealing with the toxic metalloid to keep the population going. To find out how the modern people there are able to drink water that would seriously harm other people, the researchers collected blood from 150 of the local residents and subjected the samples to genetic testing. In particular, the researchers looked for variants of an enzyme called AS3MT—prior research has shown that people with such variants are better able to tolerate arsenic. The team reports that approximately 68 percent of the people they tested had such a variant. AS3MT breaks arsenic down into two compounds: monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid. Those with the stronger gene variant produce more of the latter.The researchers note that their results show that AS3MT variants are only part of the answer; 32 percent of those tested did not have the variant, which suggests there is some other factor at play. The next step, they suggest will be to sequence the whole chromosomal region around the variant that has been found to see if there are others that might be providing some sort of unknown resistance. Citation: Atacama Desert people found to have evolved greater tolerance of arsenic (2017, February 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-atacama-people-evolved-greater-tolerance.html Study identifies first-ever human population adaptation to toxic chemical, arsenic Journal information: American Journal of Physical Anthropologycenter_img Explore further More information: Mario Apata et al. Human adaptation to arsenic in Andean populations of the Atacama Desert, American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2017). DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23193AbstractObjectivesQuebrada Camarones, in the Atacama Desert, has the highest arsenic levels in the Americas (>1,000 µg/L). However, the Camarones people have subsisted in this adverse environment during the last 7,000 years and have not presented any epidemiological emergencies. Therefore, to solve this conundrum we compared the frequencies of four protective genetic variants of the AS3MT gene associated with efficient arsenic metabolization, between the living populations of Camarones and two other populations historically exposed to lower levels of arsenic.Materials and MethodsThe Chilean selected population samples come from Quebrada Camarones (n = 50) and the Azapa Valley (n = 47) in the north and San Juan de la Costa (n = 45) in southern Chile. The genotyping was conducted using PCR-RFLP. We compared the genotypic and allelic frequencies, and estimated the haplotype frequencies in the AS3MT gene.ResultsWe found higher frequencies of the protective variants in those people from Camarones than in the other two populations. The haplotype estimation showed that the combination of protective variants of CTTA is very frequent in Camarones (68%) and Azapa (48%), but extremely low in San Juan de la Costa (8%). Also, the C variant associated with toxicity risks in the SNP Met287Thr had a lower frequency in Camarones (1%) and is higher in the other populations.DiscussionThe higher frequency of protective variants in both northern Chilean populations indicates a long exposure to naturally arsenic-contaminated water sources. Our data suggest that a high arsenic metabolization capacity has been selected as an adaptive mechanism in these populations in order to survive in an arsenic-laden environment. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Chile has found that some people living in a part of the Atacama Desert have evolved over time for survival despite drinking water that contains 100 times the suggested maximum safe limit of arsenic as set by the World Health Organization. In their paper published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, the team describes a genetic study they conducted of the people in the area and what they found. © 2017 Phys.orglast_img read more


Study suggests much more water on the moon than thought Update

first_img Get a change of view of Mercury’s north pole A trio of researchers at the University of California has found evidence that suggests there is far more ice on the surface of the moon than has been thought. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, Lior Rubanenko, Jaahnavee Venkatraman and David Paige describe their study of similarities between craters on Mercury and craters on the moon and what they found. © 2019 Science X Network Explore further More information: Lior Rubanenko et al. Thick ice deposits in shallow simple craters on the Moon and Mercury, Nature Geoscience (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0405-8 Journal information: Nature Geosciencecenter_img Citation: Study suggests much more water on the moon than thought (Update) (2019, July 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-moon-thought.html Conceptual illustration of permanently shadowed, shallow icy craters near the lunar south pole. Credit: UCLA/NASA Prior researchers using data from the Arecibo Observatory and also NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft found evidence of ice on Mercury. As part of this new effort, the researchers studied depth/diameter ratios of 2,000 craters on the planet using Mercury Laser Altimeter data. In so doing, they found that permanently shadowed craters became less shallow in higher latitudes—an indication of ice.Back in 2009, as part of the LCROSS mission, researchers allowed an empty stage of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launch vehicle to crash into the floor of a crater close to the moon’s south pole. Testing of the debris cloud by sensors aboard the Shepherding Spacecraft, showed evidence of water and ice, along with other material.The researchers with this new effort believed it was likely that there was more ice on the moon than was shown during the LCROSS impact study—likely existing in shadowed craters similar to those that had been seen on Mercury. To find out, they carried out a parallel crater study, similar to the one they had conducted for Mercury. In this case, they studied 12,000 craters on the moon using data from the LRO. They report that they found “a similar morphological trend” in craters on the south side of the Moon, near the pole. They suggest this indicates that such craters likely harbor thick ice deposits along with other materials similar to those that are believed to exist on Mercury. The researchers suggest that if this is indeed the case, then there could be up to 100 million metric tons of ice in such craters, which they note is double the amount of previous estimates based on data from the LCROSS impact study. The researchers conclude by suggesting that future Moon missions include the use of probes that can be used to study the shaded craters to confirm their suspicions. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more


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New Research From Psychological Science

first_imgIndividuals perceive objects with similar features (i.e., color, orientation, shape) as a group even when those objects are not grouped in space. An explanation for this phenomenon — termed similarity grouping — is that features are selected one at a time, and spatial areas that contain that feature are amplified even if they are not contiguous. If features are selected one at a time, though, similarity grouping must be serial (e.g., a green group cannot be formed at the same time as a red group). Yu and colleagues offer support for this hypothesis by showing that individuals do not underestimate the number of objects in a visual display when these objects are grouped by similarity cues (e.g., same color, orientation, or shape) but do underestimate the number when the objects are grouped by spatial cues (e.g., proximity). Because the number-estimation task requires simultaneous selection of the entire display, it prevented similarity grouping, impeding the underestimate created by grouping from occurring. Participants showed the same pattern of results when they had more time to process the displays and when grouping was stronger (i.e., cued by two similar features). Hence, similarity grouping seems to produce only one group at a time, which allows individuals to choose a grouping that best serves their current goals. Similarity Grouping as Feature-Based SelectionDian Yu, Xiao Xiao, Douglas K. Bemis, and Steven L. Franconeri Read about the latest research published in Psychological Science: Despite normal intelligence and schooling, many children in primary school struggle with becoming efficient readers, showing developmental dyslexia. Perry and colleagues used a computational model that learned to read the same way children do to investigate how the core deficits of dyslexia determine individual reading abilities. The model is taught grapheme-phoneme correspondences, and then it decodes words that already have a phonological representation but not an orthographic representation. Finally, in a self-taught process, the model uses orthography and phonology to strengthen letter-sound connections and improve the efficiency of decoding and, therefore, the ability to read irregular words and nonwords. The authors found that this model simulated the differences among children’s reading abilities better than models that emphasize only one component of reading difficulties (e.g., deficits in perception of phonemes, deficits in letter-position coding, or general processing inefficiency). The model indicates that increasing vocabulary tends to be more beneficial for reading irregular words than for reading nonwords; whereas increasing phonological processing shows the opposite pattern, and increasing orthographic efficiency helps reading of all word types. These results suggest that the deficits that cause dyslexia are multidimensional, and the results could pave the way for developing personalized computer models to guide the design of individually tailored interventions to improve reading. As if by Magic: An Abrupt Change in Motion Direction Induces Change BlindnessRichard Yao, Katherine Wood, and Daniel J. Simons Understanding Dyslexia Through Personalized Large-Scale Computational ModelsConrad Perry, Marco Zorzi, and Johannes C. Ziegler Magicians claim they can hide their method for a trick in plain sight by using a sudden change in movement direction that attracts attention. Yao and colleagues tested this claim that a sudden directional change in movement induces change blindness (i.e., failure to notice a change in a visual stimulus). Participants saw an array of Gabor patches (circular objects that appear striped) that traveled together in a straight line before suddenly changing direction. A random Gabor patch in the array changed in orientation either when or after the array changed trajectory, and participants were asked to report which patch changed. Participants were worse at identifying the target patch when it changed during the trajectory change. This effect occurred both when the change in trajectory was curved and when it was an abrupt angle. Eye-tracker data showed that participants rarely made a saccade (a rapid eye movement) at the moment of the change, indicating that saccades were not the cause of change blindness. The sudden change in movement of the array seems to have hidden the orientation change among the Gabor patches. This change blindness occurred while the object was in full view and shows how little disturbance is needed to mask an obvious change.last_img read more


Dont know why women love me

You are coming down to India to perform after eight years. How does it feel to be back again?I’ve been looking forward to this trip for years. Been trying to come back for a while, and just waiting for the right opportunity.What do you have to say about Bollywood music? Have you heard any of it?I have heard many, and seen many videos, and I am a fan for sure.You have collaborated with Bollywood singer Sunidhi Chauhan on the Indian remix of your song Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Heartbeat. Will you be performing the song with her when you come to India next month? Or will you be recording another song with her? You’ll just have to come and see for yourself!Any plans of collaborating with an Indian artiste or a Bollywood singer?I’m open to working with many artistes. Any suggestions from you or the fans?If not a singer, what would you have been?A football player. I played a lot as a little kid. If you come from Spain, you have to play football. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixYou have many fans across the world. What is it that makes you such a hit, especially with women? I have no clue! Perhaps you can tell me!You’ve collaborated with some of the biggest names in music for your albums. Who would be the next musician/s that you’d like to collaborate with? I’m actually in the studio now deciding just that.After Once Upon A Time In Mexico, any new film projects?I am always open to any opportunities. Acting is a talent I respect very much, and am envious of those with such talents. I would definitely be open to give it a shot. Can you please tell us about your most memorable concert? There have been so many it’s hard for me to single out any in particular one. All I can say is that I love playing at Madison Square Garden and the Radio City Music Hall in NYC. There is just so much history there.What is the status of your relationship with Anna Kournikova?We are happy where we are now. I’m in a happy relationship, that’s all that matters.DETAILAt: Huda Ground, GurgaonWhen: 19 OctoberFor tickets, log on to: www.bookmyshow.com read more


Off the track the drama way for safety

first_imgFor the first time in the history of Northern Railway, a professional theatre group has been roped in to educate the public about safety precautions to be adhered to at Unmanned Level Crossings (UMLC). The scope of their performance would include Nukkad Nataks on stations, nearby villages, Gram Panchayats on this section. This is going to be a pilot project on a 200 Kms stretch and further proliferation on other sections would depend upon the response observed on this section. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’These Nataks are designed to make people aware about other safety hazards like trespassing, roof riding which are seen to result into substantial avoidable fatalities. In the recent past, accidents have occurred as people have been carelessly crossing railway tracks with ear phones plugged in due to which they were unable to anticipate the approaching train.Though it is the endeavour of Indian Railways is to minimize train accidents including level crossing gate accidents, even then a large number of casualties take place at level crossing gate accidents which is matter of serious concern for the Indian Railways. In total there are about 242 UMLCs on Delhi Division. On 23 October last year, there was an accident at an UMLC gate where all three adults of a family in a car died in the accident leaving behind a lone child survivor.Anurag Sachan, Divisional Railway Manager, Northern Railway, said that this campaign was a part of ongoing efforts to create public awareness. He appealed to the people that they must not indulge into dangerous activities such as trespassing over railway tracks, travelling on foot boards, buffers, couplers and roof top of train coaches, cross the UMLCs carelessly and to stay safe and co-operate with Railways.last_img read more


Second shot at love for senior citizens of Kolkata

first_imgKolkata: Age is no bar for finding love, as was evident at a companionship meet in the city, where eleven senior citizens came together in search of a new lease of life. The senior citizen matrimony and companionship meet was organised on Sunday by NGO Anubandh Foundation at Calcutta Sports Journalists Club.One of the participants, a woman in her mid-60s, said she had been running her business successfully since her divorce from her husband in the late 1970s but there is “nothing more to look forward to” in her life. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights”I am looking for someone who can love me unconditionally as a friend, someone I could rely on”” the woman, who did not wish to be named, said.Another woman, a retired school teacher, said she wanted to be with someone with a progressive outlook.”My son does not ask about my whereabouts. A true life-long friend can provide me with the much needed security and solace,” she said.Amitava Desarkar, the founder-secretary of Anubandh Foundation said the project was an attempt to bring cheer to aged singletons, who often fall victim to depression. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedMost of the participants favoured live-in relationships over marriage, Desarkar said.”The void in their lives life, after retiring from a job, can sometimes make them miserable. They want a company, a friend who would support them in difficult times – be it in a marriage or a live-in,” he said.Desarkar said 40 other persons, both men and women, had applied for Sunday’s meet but backed out at the last moment.”Many people do not want to be sighted at an event like this because they are skeptical about the reactions of people around them. We are sure they will try and connect with us on Facebook,” Desarkar said. The participants had to submit their age certificate, stipulating that they were above 50 years. Each of them also submitted a copy of the death certificate of their spouses or a divorce document and a signed declaration of his or her marital status.The NGO will also soon organise a ‘Togetherness Tour’ to an outstation destination for interested senior citizens, the founder-secretary of the NGO said.”The members could find out about each other and bond well during the trip,” he added.last_img read more


Hate Facebook Learn why you meekly log in again

first_imgHave you felt like walking away from Facebook or to shut down your account swearing never to return, only to meekly log back in a week later? You are not alone.Researchers from Cornell University have found four key reasons why people make the pledge not to log in to Facebook but ultimately could not resist the allure of Facebook’s social network. “The first reason is perceived addiction. Those who feel that Facebook is addictive or habitual were more likely to return,” said lead researcher Eric Baumer. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’One participant described this habitual aspect by saying, “In the first 10 days, whenever I opened up an internet browser, my fingers would automatically go to ‘f.’”Another reason is privacy and surveillance. Users who felt their Facebook activity was being monitored were less likely to revert, while those who use Facebook largely to manage how other people think of them are more likely to log back in.“The third reason is subjective mood. In a good mood? You’re less likely to renege on your pledge to stay off Facebook,” the authors noted. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe research group also found that Facebook users were less likely to log back in if they had other social media outlets like Twitter, for instance. Those who reflected on the appropriate role for technology in their social lives were more likely to revert.“In many of these cases, people returned to Facebook but altered their use, for example, uninstalling the app from their phones, reducing their number of friends or limiting the amount of time spent on the platform,” the authors noted. The team’s findings were drawn from more than 5,000 surveys issued to participants by “Just”, the Dutch creative agency. The survey data was provided by 99daysoffreedom.com—an online campaign that encouraged participants to log off Facebook for 99 days. These surveys were intended to gauge each user’s mood throughout the Facebook detox. A sampling of this data was then shared with the Cornell research team.“People who leave social media and then return provide the opportunity to understand better what’s at stake when people use or don’t use sites like Facebook,” the authors pointed out in a paper published in the journal Social Media + Society.last_img read more


Fuel in state to be Rs 1 cheaper CM

first_imgKolkata: In view of the rising price of fuel in the country and the Centre’s unceasing apathy towards the same, the Mamata Banerjee government announced the decision to withdraw Re 1 cess on both petrol and diesel.This comes at a time when the BJP-led government at the Centre has increased excise duty nine times despite a fall in the global oil prices. The Centre has increased the tax by Rs 10 and Rs 11.77 on a litre of petrol and diesel respectively. On the contrary, the Bengal government had neither increased the tax on the same nor the cess has gone up in the past few years. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAfter announcing the withdrawal of Re 1 cess on petrol and diesel in the state, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee also demanded the withdrawal of duty that was imposed by the Centre on petrol and diesel prices.While leaving Nabanna on Tuesday evening, the Chief Minister said: “Unlike other states, we are repaying a huge debt of Rs 48,000 crore. In such a situation, the decision has been taken to withdraw the cess to help the common man as our government is a pro-people one.” Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedShe also took a dig at the Centre saying that petrol and diesel prices are going up every day. “It is the outcome of total financial mismanagement and no one even bothers to take the necessary steps to bring about some stability,” Banerjee said adding that the petrol price in January 2016 was Rs 65.12 per litre and it went up to Rs 81.60 in September. Similarly, the diesel price went up to Rs 73.26 per litre at the beginning of September while the price was Rs 48.80 in January 2016. “The hefty increase in the prices of petrol and diesel by Rs 16.48 per litre and Rs 24.46 per litre respectively is hitting the common man,” the Chief Minister said and stated it to be a manner in which “the BJP-led government is punishing the masses”.It may be mentioned that the BJP government has increased tax on petrol from Rs 9.48 per litre to Rs 19.48. Again, in case of diesel, the duty imposed by the Centre increased from Rs 3.56 per litre to Rs 15.33 per litre. The state doesn’t get any share of the duty imposed by the Centre.She further added that some states are trying to reduce their taxes by Re 1 or Rs 1.50 on petroleum products with an eye on the forthcoming elections there. “Andhra Pradesh had reduced it by Rs 2 as there is election in some time and they do not have the burden of huge debt like Bengal.”Both the common man and the West Bengal Petroleum Dealers’ Association have welcomed the move of the Chief Minister.In a statement, Ramesh Agarwal, president, Merchants’ Chamber of Commerce and Industry has welcomed the move of the state government to reduce prices of petrol and diesel by Re 1 per litre.last_img read more


PrePuja fervour lightens up city

first_imgSetting up the festive mood ahead of the upcoming festivals– Durga Puja and Dussehra, a nearly two week-long exhibition to showcase an array of exquisite and exclusive handloom and handicrafts creations of master weavers and crafts persons of rural Bengal was opened in the national Capital on Saturday.The 5th edition of the ‘Bengal Pre-Puja Exposition’, being organised by the Office of the Resident Commissioner, Government of West Bengal, from September 17 – 29, was formally inaugurated at Handloom Haat, Janpath, in the gracious presence of Sanjay Mitra, Secretary, Transport, Government of India, Bhaskar Khulbe, Secretary to the Prime Minister, RD Meena, Officer on Special Duty, Office of the Resident Commissioner as well as other senior officials of the Government of West Bengal. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAround 50 artisans from various districts of West Bengal will participate in the exposition which is aimed at promoting the rich and glorious tradition of Bengal handicrafts and handloom and also ensuring commercial benefits to the crafts persons and weavers before the festive season. A special attraction will be the representation of the rural craft hubs, being developed in ten locations across the state by the Department of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises and Textiles (MSME&T) in partnership with UNESCO. The artisans from the craft hubs have been brought to Delhi in collaboration with banglanatak.com, an implementing agency of the project. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveSpecial cultural soirees had been organised at the courtyard of Handloom Haat on the weekend, with performance by Bengali folk fusion band and mystic baul singers showcasing the vibrant cultural heritage of the state.The initiative is being supported by the Departments of MSME&T, Tourism and Information and Cultural Affairs, Government of West Bengal. The Office of the Development Commissioner (Handlooms), Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, which is the controlling authority of Handloom Haat, has extended valuable assistance and cooperation to this endevour.last_img read more


Wonder benefits of coconut oil

first_imgEver wondered about the different ways in which coconut oil can be used? This marvel oil has been used in India for generations for a variety of reasons because of its different health benefits.Ayurveda experts list down some benefits.Natural moisturiser: Coconut oil is used to treat dead skin, while also enhancing complexion. Since it has no side effects, it is used to treat an array of skin problems such as psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema and skin burns. Coconut oil also helps in removing stretch marks and enhancing epidermis to prevent cellulite. Apply a few drops of coconut oils on your lips regularly to prevent chapped lips. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfHair care: Coconut oil is extremely beneficial for hair growth and helps in adding shine to the strands. A five-minute scalp massage with coconut oil not only increases the blow circulation in the body, but also helps in the replenishment of lost nutrients. By regularly massaging with coconut oil, you can also ensure that your hair is dandruff free. Oral health: Oil pulling is an ancient Ayurvedic ritual where you swish oil around in your mouth for about 20 minutes and then spit it out. Removing oral bacteria helps in prevention of various diseases in and around the gums. Oil pulling with coconut oil should be done thrice a week for healthier gums! Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveJoint pain: In Ayurveda, coconut oil is used to ease the pain in arthritis. It improves the ability to absorb calcium and magnesium in the bones.Weight loss: The oil extracted from fresh coconut meat contains more medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) (70-85%) than other coconut oils. MCFAs are easily oxidized lipids and are not stored in adipose tissue unlike long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Thus, coconut oil containing mainly MCFAs may provide an ideal source for weight reduction. Strengthens immunity: Coconut oil is a rich source of antimicrobial lipids like lauric acid and capric acid which possess antifungal and antibacterial properties. The micro flora in the saliva and gut help to break down the triglycerides in coconut oil into free fatty acids and glycerol, which have these immune strengthening effects.Ideal for cooking: Amongst dietary oils, coconut oil is least vulnerable to oxidation, which makes it the safest for cooking.So, next time you go oil shopping, you know which oil to choose!last_img read more


7 people fall victim to child lifter suspicion in Alipurduar

first_imgDarjeeling: There has been a spate of assaults and lynching attempts in North Bengal, especially in Dooars, on suspicion of child abduction. 7 persons became victims of mob violence in Madarihat on Wednesday.6 youths were selling cookware from a van at Salmandal Chowpathy, Madarihat in Alipurduar district. Suddenly, local residents attacked the youths and the driver of the vehicle, without any provocation. The 7 people got down from the vehicle and began to flee, as the mob started chasing them, shouting that they were child lifters. While three managed to flee, the rest were caught by the mob and were badly beaten up. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataLater, they were rescued by Madarihat police and taken to a local hospital. The mob then vandalised the vehicle and even looted the cookware of a renowned company from the van. The 6 persons used to stay in a rented house in Dhupguri and sold cookware for a living. Alipurduar SP Nagendra Tripathi said: “We will identify the assailants and the rumor mongers and take stringent action. No one will be spared.” Incidentally on July 22, a 32-year-old man was stoned to death on suspicion of being a child lifter. The incident occurred in Sukhani Bustee, Nagrakata in Jalpaiguri district. He used to frequent the area to beg. 6 persons have been arrested in connection with the incident.last_img read more


All Ball Gottlieb talks conference finals and why the Lakers should think

first_imgEpisode 9Gottlieb talks NBA Draft and why he believes Oklahoma’s Trae Young will struggle in the NBA. He also discusses LeBron’s late game struggles against the Celtics in the Eastern Conference Finals; if Cleveland can win Games 3 and 4 at home; and why the Lakers should think twice before going all in to sign him.In the Western Conference Finals, Doug explains what the Rockets did in Game 2 to even up their series with the Warriors. Advertisement Guests:Ryan Hollins – 10-year NBA veteran on the Rockets jumping on the Warriors in Game 2 of the Western Conference Finals; why Steph is a marked man defensively; why the Warriors will take control of the series in games 3 and 4 at home; and why the Cavs can even up the series in Games 3 and 4 at home.David Thorpe – NBA Writer on what the Rockets did differently in Game 2 to blowout the Warriors; why Steph Curry’s D is a problem; how Cleveland can get back in the series at home; and why LeBron alone isn’t enough to win the series.Make sure you download and subscribe to All Ball and The Herd Podcast Network on iTunes and iHeart, or however you choose to listen!last_img read more


VIDEO Goose slams into scoreboard during failed getaway from Tigers game

first_img Advertisement Don’t worry, the goose is fine, other than a bruised ego.We’ve been informed the goose is healthy and has been released outside the ballpark. #RallyGoose— Detroit Tigers (@tigers) May 31, 2018 A Canadian goose is recovering in the greater Detroit area this morning after slamming into an upper deck scoreboard during a failed getaway attempt after briefly crashing the Tigers game and stopping play.We’re not experts or anything, but it seems like this particular bird could be a little stronger in the flying department. This is like the crash scene from Alive. Maybe it was tired from hitting the strip clubs across the border in Windsor or too many Molson XXX’s.last_img


Middlekauff with Titans GM Jon Robinson on learning from Belichick and signing

first_imgMiddlekauff is in Nashville and sits down with Titans GM John Robinson who discusses learning from Belichick, hiring head coach Mike Vrabel, the decision to sign Malcolm Butler, Tennessee’s Draft, and his expectations for 2018.John also explains why the learning curve for teams installing new offenses is steeper than fans realize. He also takes listener questions in Middlekauff’s Mailbag.Follow John on Twitter at @JohnMiddlekauff and download and subscribe to the 3 and Out on Apple, iHeart or wherever you download your podcasts now! Rate 5 Stars and leave your questions in the iTunes comments and John will answer them every week.last_img


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5 Ways to Control Your Email Inbox

first_img Enroll Now for Free As charges continue to swirl around hedge fund SAC Capital, Steve Cohen has put forward a novel defense: He couldn’t possibly have acted on a trading tip emailed to him because he is so swamped with emails, he ignores most of them. In fact, Cohen alleges he reads just 11 percent of the 1,000 emails he gets a day.That may help Cohen, but for other business leaders that kind of inattention could be deadly. Here’s some advice on how to get a grip before your inbox gets the best of you.Those emails sitting in your inbox — all 522 of them? Each is a decision you need to make, says Alex Moore, CEO of Baydin, a San Francisco-based email productivity software company.”The quicker you handle them, the more effective you can be,” says Moore. “Email reflects how much we have to do and an inbox with hundreds of emails is counter-productive. Too many people use their inbox as a revolving to-do list, but that’s not a good way to keep track of things. Instead, each email should be considered as a decision to be made. It should be handled, deleted or archived.”Related: 4 Easy Tools for Cleaning Up Your InboxIn January, Baydin launched ReviveYourInbox.com, a free three-week program that offers skills and methods to help tame overwhelming email inboxes. To date, about 20,000 people have gone through the program.”The people who finish often tell us it changed their life,” says Moore. He shares the first five techniques small-business owners can use to reduce the amount of email they receive and better handle the emails that matter:1. Disable notifications.The first step to taking control of your inbox is to disable the notifications that interrupt and distract your day. Checking your email might seem harmless, but Moore says a case study by Loughborough University found that it takes an average of 64 seconds to fully recover from being interrupted by an email.Unless your job demands replies within minutes, Moore says you should check your inbox two to three times a day, preferably for fixed amounts of time.2. Unsubscribe from junk emails. It may seem easy to delete junk email as it comes in, but according to Moore, deleting a newsletter every day for the next year will consume over 30 minutes. And when important emails are mixed in with unimportant ones, it’s easy to lose track of the ones that require action.3. Learn how to search email.Important message seem to hide from you when you go looking for them. Instead of using folders, Moore suggests learning about the search terms offered by many email providers. His program offers a list of basic search keywords, including “has:attachment” which will search for messages that have files attached to them; “before:” which brings up messages sent before a date; and “filename:” which will take you to emails with attachments.Related: How to Cut Your Inbox by 60 Percent4. Adopt an archive mentality.To best manage your inbox, archive messages you no longer have an immediate need for to another folder. Under this system, only two types of messages stay in your inbox: messages that you haven’t read yet and a small number of messages that need prompt attention. Everything else moves to a single archive folder. When needed, emails can be easily located using search terms.5. Clean out older messages.After you have a system in place to effectively handle new emails, it’s time to clean up the emails that were in your inbox before you started. Anything more than 30 days old can be archived without reviewing. If you discover you need it, you can search the archive folder. Handle the remaining email a little at a time over the next few days. Go through each one, and respond, archive or delete. If you have hundreds of emails, divide them into batches.”Email should be a tool that supports your business,” says Moore, “not one that detracts from it.”Related: How to Turn Your Email Into a Producivity ToolThis is an update of a piece originally published on April 3, 2013. See the original article here. This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Nowcenter_img 4 min read July 24, 2013last_img read more