Harvard scientists have used light and genetic trickery to trace out neurons’ abilityto excite or inhibit one another, literally shedding new light on the questionof how neurons interact with one another in live animals.The work is described in the current issue of thejournal Nature Methods. It buildsupon scientists’ understanding of the neural circuitry of the nematode worm Caenorhabditiselegans, frequently used as a modelin biological research. While the detailed physical structure of C. elegans scant 302 neurons is well documented, the newresearch helps measure how neurons in this organism affect each others’activity, and could ultimately help researchers map out in detail how neuralimpulses flow throughout the organism.“This approach gives us apowerful new tool for analyzing small neural circuits, and directly measuringhow neurons talk to each other,” says Sharad Ramanathan, an assistantprofessor of molecular and cellular biology(MCB) and of applied physics at Harvard.“While we’ve only mapped out the interplay of four neurons, it’s the first timescientists have determined the ability of multiple neurons in a circuit toexcite or inhibit their neighbors.”Zengcai Guo and Ramanathan combined genetically encodedcalcium sensors and light-activated ion channels with optics. The scientists useda mirror array to excite individual neurons – each just two to three millionthsof a meter wide – while simultaneously measuring calcium activity in multipleother neurons. This calcium activity serves to indicate whether these otherneurons were activated or inhibited by the neuron that was primed with a burstof light.“Using this technique, for the first time, we couldexcite both a sensory neuron and an interneuron and monitor how activity propagates,”says Guo, a research assistant in the FAS Center for Systems Biology, MCB, and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. “Weexpect that our technique can eventually be used more broadly to measure howactivity propagates through neural circuits.”Manipulating neurons with light, Guo and Ramanathanwere able to evoke an avoidance response – causing the worm to back away fromlight – that is normally prompted only when the organism is touched. With a compact nervous system consisting of only 302neurons linked by some 7,000 synapses, the nematode C. elegans is anideal system for studying the interplay between neural circuits and behavior.While the physical connectivity of the neurons in this nematode is well known, scientistsknow very little about which of these connections are excitatory and which are inhibitory.Because of the smallsizes of the neurons and a tough cuticle surrounding the worm,electrophysiological recordings can be made from only one neuron at a time, precludingthe possibility of any circuit-level analysis of neural activity. By establishing thisfirst fully genetically encoded light-based electrophysiology, the authors havedeveloped a way to overcome this limitation.Guo and Ramanathan’s Nature Methods paper was co-authored by Anne C. Hart ofMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Their work wasfunded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.
United probably should have killed the game off long before the final whistle, but they did enough to extend their lead at the top of the table, for a few hours at least, to 18 points, the perfect preparation for Monday night’s FA Cup quarter-final replay at Chelsea. Sir Alex Ferguson did not even include Rio Ferdinand and Wayne Rooney in his 18 with Monday’s trip to Stamford Bridge looming large, but his side eased their way through the first half without ever having to find top gear. There were 12 minutes gone when full-back Alex Buttner embarked upon a determined run which took him past both Craig Gardner and Bardsley and deep into the penalty area, where Mignolet managed to block his close-range effort – but he could do nothing about the chain of events which led to the opening goal with 27 minutes gone. Van Persie picked up possession on the left side of the penalty area, but found himself confronted by Bardsley. The striker patiently worked himself into a position to shoot, but when he unleashed his drive, it flew off Bardsley’s boot on to Bramble’s knee and inside the far post. The home side returned after the break knowing they had to go for broke if they were to get anything out of the game, but United retained possession at will with the movement of Shinji Kagawa and Van Persie, and Michael Carrick’s composure simply too much for their hosts, who were seeing too little of the ball to bring wide men Adam Johnson and James McClean into play. However, the former Manchester City winger finally got the bit between his teeth with 59 minutes gone when he burst into the penalty area. His cross was blocked, but Bardsley latched on to the loose ball, only to fire harmlessly over the top. Van Persie should have made sure deep into injury-time after Ashley Young had evaded Bramble’s lunge and squared, but Mignolet made a remarkable stop to deny him. The luckless defender unwittingly turned Robin van Persie’s 27th-minute shot past keeper Simon Mignolet after it had also clipped Phil Bardsley on its way to goal. The Black Cats were barely in the game before the break, but buoyed by United’s failure to build upon their lead, rallied after it without ever testing keeper David de Gea as they extended their run without a league win to eight games in front of a crowd of 43,760. Titus Bramble’s unfortunate own goal allowed Manchester United to tighten their stranglehold on the Barclays Premier League title as they recorded a narrow 1-0 victory at Sunderland. Press Association
Press Association Tottenham are pushing ahead with proposals to redevelop land around White Hart Lane to accommodate a new 56,250-capacity venue, but following legal challenges in the High Court could be set for a season of ground-sharing rather than being able to move for the 2017-18 campaign as planned. Arsenal, meanwhile, are only now starting to show the benefits of the switch from Highbury to the 60,000-seater Emirates Stadium, which was self-funded and sees the north London club set aside some £35million each year against a long-term fixed interest rate repayment bond. Arsenal manager Arsene Wenger has warned Tottenham will face their biggest battle yet to deliver on the pitch once the club eventually moves to a new stadium. The Gunners may now be able to not only hold on to top men with lucrative new contracts, but can also compete to lure the likes of Mesut Ozil and Alexis Sanchez to the club, but Wenger knows that battle to constantly deliver Champions League football while balancing the books has been a testing one. “If you look at the history of all the English clubs who have built a new stadium and look at where they have finished, then it tells you how difficult it is,” said Wenger. “I knew always that would be the most sensitive period in the history of the club. “When we were in a position where we had to be in the Champions League just financially and you get into March/April and are like that (not in top four), t he stress is terrible because you feel the future of the club is at stake and you have not a lot of margin (for error) – every point you lose can be dramatic.” Although American investment company Cain Hoy has said it is no longer considering making an offer for Tottenham, the club are continuing ” discussions with multiple providers of finance” in the search of ” the optimum financing package for the project”. Wenger believes there is no doubt Tottenham will need some sort of cash injection to complete their ambitious plans. “If an owner comes in, and says ‘look I put £400million to buy the stadium’ it is easy,” he said. “The way we did it is the hardest way, because we had no outside financial help and had to negotiate with the banks just to get the money at the start – and lets not forget we paid £120million just for the land. “In the end we built the stadium for £400million, today it would cost £600million or up to £700million.” Wenger has enjoyed a fine record against Tottenham, losing only six of 43 previous matches and on Saturday will go up against a 12th different permanent Spurs manager in Mauricio Pochettino. “I honestly do not look at the satisfaction of my job comparing to Spurs. I just look always did i do the maximum with what resources I had. After that if Tottenham is not competing with us it is somebody else,” he said. Wenger indicated he could deploy Mesut Ozil in a central role again on Saturday, the German having made such an impact in the 3-0 win at Aston Villa before a much-changed Arsenal team were beaten 2-1 at home by Southampton in the Capital One Cup on Tuesday night. By contrast Wales midfielder Aaron Ramsey has returned a couple of uninspiring displays, but Wenger has every confidence Arsenal’s player of the season will soon be on form again. ” You have always to come back to basics – what is my job? A midfielder, to win the ball and give a good pass,” said Wenger. “After a consequence of that, and Aaron’s natural engine, is he will have chances, but if you play (like) ‘I have to score’ and every time you want to be in the box, (then) you forget a little bit the basics of the job.”
Fairfax County Police tweeted they are investigating the reports and are asking people to avoid the area.We are responding to reports of a man with weapon at the Gannett Building located at 7950 Jones Branch Drive in McLean. Please avoid the area, updates to follow #FCPD pic.twitter.com/cwz3c9wdUx— Fairfax County Police (@FairfaxCountyPD) August 7, 2019 Authorities have not confirmed that any shots were fired at this time.The Gannett Building houses USA Today offices. The headquarters of Gannett and USA Today has been evacuated following reports of a man with a gun in the building.The building is located just outside Washington, DC in Northern Virginia.A USA Today employee tweeted that the building has been evacuated.SWAT teams evacuation at @USATODAY HQ in Tysons pic.twitter.com/dCh6d160Uv— William Dyer (@wdyerz) August 7, 2019
11 Jul 2014 England men lose Euro crown and boys are also beaten Defending champions England lost their grip on the European Men’s Team Championship when they were beaten 5-2 by Ireland in the semi-finals in Linna. Having won the title so well last year and shown superb form to reach the last four, the England team were outplayed by the Irish on a bad Friday in Finland. The morning foursomes were shared with Ryan Evans and Paul Howard beating Cormac Sharvin and Gavin Moynihan 3 and 2 but Ben Stow and Jordan Smith went down 4 and 2 to Paul Dunne and Gary Hurley. However, Ireland dominated the singles, winning four of the five games to march into the final where they will meet Spain, who beat Scotland 5-2, for the title. England’s only singles win was secured by Toby Tree (image © Leaderboard Photography) with a one-hole victory over Dunne. Otherwise the boys in green called the shots. Evans went down 4 and 3 to Moynihan, Ashley Chesters lost 5 and 3 to Hurley, while Smith and Stow were each beaten 2 and 1 by Sharvin and Dermot McElroy respectively. The England team will now face Scotland in the third place match. Meanwhile the boys long wait for title success in their European Team Championship goes on after they were beaten 5-2 by Italy in their semi-final in Oslo. It is ten years since England lifted this particular championship but the class of 2014 came up against a powerful Italian line-up who gave themselves a great start by winning both foursomes. Ashton Turner and Haydn McCullen lost 3 and 2 to Renato Paratore and Guido Migliozzi while Bradley Moore and Jack Singh Brar went down by the same score to Federico Zuckermann and Stefano Mazzoli. That left the English with a hill to climb in the singles and McCullen and Jamie Dick secured the only victories, McCullen beating Migliozzi by one hole and Dick overcoming Teodoro Soldati by the same margin. The other three games went to the Italians with Paratore beating Moore 2 and 1, Eduardo Raffaele Lipparelli beating Marco Penge 3 and 2 and Mazzoli coming out on top by two holes against Turner. England now meet Scotland in the third place match which is not only for the bronze medal at these championships but is also a playoff for the final World Boys Championship spot for next year in Japan. Meanwhile Italy meet Sweden for the title.